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Possible Consequences of Brain Injury

Below are some of the significant consequences of acquired brain injury, which can affect anyone, anytime. 


The brain is the control board for all the body's functions including thinking, moving and breathing. It receives messages, interprets them and then responds to them by enabling the person to speak, move or show emotion.

Brain Injury is the leading cause of death and disability for Canadians under the age of 45.

Listed below are some of the possible consequences of brain injury.

Physical and Sensory Difficulties

  • Seizures of all types
  • Muscle spasticity
  • Double vision or low vision, even blindness
  • Difficulty with hearing (hyper-sensitivity to noise, ringing or buzzing noises)
  • Loss of smell or taste
  • Speech impairments such as slow or slurred speech
  • Headaches or migranes
  • Fatigue
  • Sleep dificulies
  • Balance problems
  • Motor coordination
  • Incontinence (bowel and/or bladder)

Thinking Changes

  • Short-term memory loss; long-term memory loss
  • Slowed ability to receive or process information (information overload)
  • Trouble concentrating or paying attention for periods of time
  • Difficulty keeping up with a conversation; other communication difficulties, such as word finding problems
  • Spatial disorientation
  • Organizational problems & impaired judgment
  • Unable to do more than one thing at a time
  • A lack of initiating activities, or once started, difficulty in completing tasks without reminders
  • Planning, reasoning and decision making difficulties
  • Sequencing difficulties
  • Inflexibility (ie. unreasonable stubbornness)
  • Self-perception
  • Persistence

Personality & Behavioural Changes

  • Depresssion
  • Social skills problems
  • Mood swings
  • Inappropriate behaviour
  • Inability to inhibit remarks
  • Problems with emotional control
  • Difficulty... relating to others, maintaining relationships, forming new relationships, interpreting social cues
  • Stress, anxiety, frustration
  • Egocentric behaviours; difficulty seeing how behaviours can affect others
  • Inflexibility (unreasonable stubbornness)